Construction of a school building goes through a wide procedure which educators and architects should make themselves aware about. It appears that most of the educators are not familiar with the design and construction just like how some designers are oblivious about the realities of education spaces. This article talks about the basic norms of designing a school and construction thereof.
Architect is considered as the leader of the designing team who is solely responsible for the project. Architecture firm coordinates other firms and within the firm there exist a lead architect or a project designer and the civil contractor is selected once the building layouts are ready.
There are different phases of design and construction process which is to be followed step by step in order to achieve the objective. They are as follows:
9)Post occupancy evaluation
The pre- designinvolves the owner seeking help of planners or architects to discuss and develop the criteria of the project. They also specify the educational requirements. Then creates an architectural program, select the site, establish schedule and discuss the initial project budget.
At times, the pre- design also includes conceptual design which shows the rough sketch of a building. It is an effective way which sums up more relevant information about the targetedproject. The pre design is not included in the standard industry agreement but it is essential for large school projects.
Do’s, to include the concepts of pre-design phase and specify goals of educational and architecture programmes.
Don’ts,not to assume the readymade design as the final one. It is subject to change as per the need.
The schematic designindicates the development of a general design of a building. A collaboration happens between the owner and the architect and they develop floor plans and images about how the project will look like. This phase is crucial for both the architect and the owner in setting up of design and plan. Sometimes architects have to present three or more plans for the owner to choose from. Negotiations, meetings, workshops happen during this period between the two parties to reach at a conclusion.
DO’s, to take time to review the design carefully. Ensure that the cost estimate remains within the budget.
Don’ts, not to be in a hurry to reach the final design plan. Minute details are to be taken into account carefully.
The design development includes the detailed analysis of the design of the building, the integration and coordination of the building are carefully observed and investigated. The floor plans and the appearance of the building is to be decided. During this phase there is a great number of chances for the project to grow in terms of cost, quality or scope. So, try to work within the budget plan not exceeding the costs.
DO’s, to decide and finalize the interiors in early stage of the development. Ensure whether the building will be affordable to operate. Cost estimate should be within the budget
Don’ts, the colour and the furniture selection should not be delayed and done as soon as possible.
The construction documents, when the design team draws the final plans with specification of the building. Here the architects have less contact with the owner than in the previous phases
DO’s, carefully review the designs. if possible, hire a professional or engineer for the review.
Don’ts, do not think that your plan is perfect. Never assume the changes or corrections will happen later. If so, it will be quite expensive
The Biddingphase is when the architect and the owner schedule a meeting to select the contractor. They determine the lowest bidder and whether their bid is within the budget.
The construction phase starts with a pre- construction meeting between architect, owner and contractor. The owner should be presented throughout during the construction and monitor them because some construction work gets out of hand from owner’s point of view. This happens majorly due to the communication gap between the owner and the contractor. It is the responsibility of the owner to address the problems quickly
Occupancy phase is when after the completion of the project, an issuance certificate of occupancy by the building code authority is to be drafted. During this time small problems emerge which is called shake down period. If you have managed your resources wisely, you will have some money left to sort out the contingency.
The warranty should be of 12 months by getting the acceptance of the project by the owner. The maintenance and repairs should be done by the owner. Before warranty period ends, the owner, architect and contractor should walk through the project and identify any repairs need to be done.
The Post Occupancy Evaluationis to evaluate the working of the building in good condition or not. Everything ranging from the costs, maintenance will be assessed.
These phases when followed seriously would result in the development of aschool which is productive and could be set as an example for future reference for others.
The Changing Dynamics of Educational Infrastructure In terms of School Architecture and Interior Design
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